Characteristics of baobab pulp-based foods from urban areas of Benin


  • Ahotondji Mechak GBAGUIDI Laboratoire de Sciences et Technologie des Aliments et Bioressources et de Nutrition Humaine, (LaSTAB-NH/UNA), Ecole des Sciences et Techniques de Conservation et de Transformation des Produits Agricoles, Centre Universitaire de Sakété, Université Nationale d’Agriculture, Bénin
  • Flora Josiane CHADARE Laboratoire de Sciences et Technologie des Aliments et Bioressources et de Nutrition Humaine, (LaSTAB-NH/UNA), Ecole des Sciences et Techniques de Conservation et de Transformation des Produits Agricoles, Centre Universitaire de Sakété, Université Nationale d’Agriculture, Bénin
  • Yann Eméric MADODE Laboratoire de Sciences des Aliments, Ecole de Nutrition et des Sciences et Technologies des Aliments, Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques, Université d’Abomey-Calavi (LSA/ENSTA/FSA/UAC), Abomey-Calavi, Bénin
  • Folachodé Ulrich Gildas AKOGOU Département de Nutrition et Sciences Agro-Alimentaires
  • Achille Ephrem ASSOGBADJO Laboratoire d’Ecologie Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques, Université d’Abomey-Calavi (LEA/FSA/UAC), Abomey-Calavi, Bénin
  • Noël Houédougbé AKISSOE Laboratoire de Sciences des Aliments


Nectar, Syrups, Pulp, Color, Microflora


Baobab is a multipurpose tree, with nutritional importance to African rural populations, and several products are derived from its fruit. The dehulled fruit delivers a pulp used for food processing. The present study aimed to characterize the baobab pulp derived products encountered in food outlets in Benin. Pulp based foods were inventoried and characterized for their physico-chemical composition, through the determinations of pH, Brix value, dry matter, color and their microflora, through the mesophilic aerobic germs and the enterobacteriaceae. The pH, Brix value, dry matter and color were assessed using potentiometric, refractometric, gravimetric methods, and the chromameter respectively; the microflora was evaluated by colony count method. Surveying the food outlets of the four dominant cities, nectars, syrups and pulp were noticed as the main baobab fruit pulp products commercialized. The pH, Brix value, dry matter of these foods, ranged between 3.3-3.7, 5.7-20.9 °Bx and 6.7-19.4 g/100g for nectars, 3.3-3.5, 58-69 °Bx and 52-58 g/100g for syrups, and 3.3-3.4, 54.5-61.5 °Bx, 84.0-90.8 g/100g for pulps. The color was orange for nectars, red for syrups and from orange to yellow for pulp, based on their hue value. Mesophilic aerobic germs and Enterobacteriaceae count in pulps ranged from 3.4-5.0 log CFU/g and <1-3.2 log CFU/g respectively. The baobab pulp derived products, namely the nectar, the pulp and the syrup, possess a strong variability in their quality, and the understanding of the processing and storage techniques will contribute to develop suitable technologies for each baobab pulp derived product.


Althwab, S, Alsattame, S, Al-mundarij, T, Hamad, E, Mousa, H. (2019). Protective Effect of Baobab Fruit Pulp (Adansonia digitata L.) from Oxidative Stress Induced in Rats by High-Fat Diet. Life Science Journal, 16(1): 63-71.

Ambé, G-A. (2001). Les fruits sauvages comestibles des savanes guinéennes de Côte d'Ivoire : état de la connaissance par une population locale, les Malinké. Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment, 5(1): 43-58.

AOAC International. (1980). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (W. Horwitz Ed. 13th Edition ed.). Washington DC 20044: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.

Assogbadjo, A, Glèlè Kakaï, R, Chadare, F, Thomson, L, Kyndt, T, Sinsin, B, Van Damme, P. (2008). Folk Classification, Perception, and Preferences of Baobab Products in West Africa: Consequences for Species Conservation and Improvement. Economic Botany, 62(1): 74-84.

Berlinet, C, Brat, P, Ducruet, V. (2008). Quality of orange juice in barrier packaging material. Packaging Technology and Science, 21(5): 279-286.

Braca, A, Sinisgalli, C, De Leo, M, Muscatello, B, Cioni, P, Milella, L, Ostuni, A, Giani, S, Sanogo, R. (2018). Phytochemical Profile, Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities of Adansonia digitata L. (Baobab) from Mali, as a Source of Health-Promoting Compounds. Molecules, 23(12): 3104-3121.

Carlsen, M, Halvorsen, B, Holte, K, Bøhn, S, Dragland, S, Sampson, L, Willey, C, Senoo, H, Umezono, Y, Sanada, C, Barikmo, I, Berhe, N, Willett, W, Phillips, K, Jacobs, D, Blomhoff, R. (2010). The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide. Nutrition Journal, 9(1): 3.

Chadare, F, Gayet, D, Azokpota, P, Nout, M, Linnemann, A, Hounhouigan, D, van Boekel, M. (2010). Three Traditional Fermented Baobab Foods from Benin, Mutchayan, Dikouanyouri, and Tayohounta: Preparation, Properties, and Consumption. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 49(4): 279-297.

Chadare, F, Hounhouigan, D, Linnemann, A, Nout, M, van Boekel, M. (2008). Indigenous Knowledge and Processing of Adansonia Digitata L. Food Products in Benin. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 47(4): 338-362.

Chadare, F, Hounhouigan, D, Nout, M, van Boekel, M. (2013). Ethno-food knowledge of Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) and characterisation of its traditional fermented novel foods in Benin. Acta Horticulturae, 979: 187-194.

Chadare, F, Linnemann, A, Hounhouigan, D, van Boekel, M. (2009). Baobab Food Products: A review on their Composition and Nutritonal Value. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 49(3): 254-274.

Cissé, M, Sakho, M, Dornier, M, Mar Diop, C, Reynes, M, Sock, O. (2009). Caractérisation du fruit du baobab et étude de sa transformation en nectar. Fruits, 64(1).

Codex Alimentarius. (2005). Norme Codex pour les tomates en conserve (Codex Stan 13-1981). In: Codex.

Diop, A, Sakho, M, Dornier, M, Cisse, M, Reynes, M. (2006). Le baobab africain (Adansonia digitata L.) : principales caractéristiques et utilisations. Fruits, 61(1): 55-69.

Hamad, A. (2019). Some Natural Antioxidant sources from foods and Tree Barks. International Journal of Scientific & Technology research, 8(3): 93-98.

Hounhouigan, M, Linnemann, A, Soumanou, M, Van Boekel, M. (2014). Effect of Processing on the Quality of Pineapple Juice. Food Reviews International, 30(2): 112-133.

Ibraheem, S, Idris, YMA, Mustafa, S, Kabeir, B, Abas, F, Maulidiani, M, Abdul Hamid, N. (2021). Phytochemical profile and biological activities of Sudanese baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) fruit pulp extract. International Food Research Journal, 28(1): 31-43.

ISO. (1991). Fruits and vegetables products - Determination of pH. In (2nd ed., Vol. ISO 1842:1991). Switzerland: ISO.

ISO. (2003). Fruit and vegetable products - Determination of soluble solids - Refractometric method. In (1st ed., Vol. ISO 2173:2003). Switzerland: ISO.

ISO. (2004). Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - Horizontal methods for the detection and Enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae In Part 2: Colony count method (1st ed., Vol. ISO 21528-2:2004). Switzerland: ISO.

ISO. (2013). Microbiology of the food chain - Horizontal method for the enumeration of microorganisms. In Part 1: Colony count at 30°C by the pour plate technique (1st ed., Vol. 4833). Switzerland: ISO.

Li, X-N, Sun, H, Shi, H, Yu, L, Ridge, C, Mazzola, E, Okunji, C, Iwu, M, Michel, T, Chen, P. (2017). Pro?ling hydroxycinnamic acid glycosides, iridoid glycosides, and phenylethanoid glycosides in baobab fruit pulp (Adansonia digitata). Food Research International, 99: 755-761.

Lisao, K, Geldenhuys, C, Chirwa, P. (2017). Traditional uses and local perspectives on baobab (Adansonia digitata) population structure by selected ethnic groups in northern Namibia. South African Journal of Botany, 113: 449-456.

Makawi, A, Mustafa, A, Adiamo, O, Ahmed, I. (2019). Physicochemical, nutritional, functional, rheological, and microbiological properties of sorghum flour fermented with baobab fruit pulp flour as starter. Food Science & Nutrition, 7: 689-699.

Minolta, K. (2003). Precise color communication: color control from perception to instrumentation: Konica Minolta Sensing, Inc.

Muthai, K, Karori, M, Muchugi, A, Indieka, A, Dembele, C, Mng'omba, S, Jamnadass, R. (2016). Nutritional variation in baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) fruit pulp and seeds based on Africa geographical regions. Food Sci Nutr, 5(6): 1116-1129.

Nooshkam, M, Varidi, M, Bashash, M. (2019). The Maillard reaction products as food-born antioxidant and antibrowning agents in model and real food systems. Food Chemistry, 275: 644-660.

Pamba, K, Assanvo, J, Koffi, K. (2018). Caractérisation biochimique et microbiologique de la pulpe de baobab (Adansonia digitata) vendue sur le marché d'Abidjan. American Journal of Innovative Research and Applied Sciences.

Sant'Anna, V, Gurak, P, Ferreira Marczak, L, Tessaro, I. (2013). Tracking bioactive compounds with colour changes in foods – A review. Dyes and Pigments, 98(3): 601-608.

Tembo, DT, Holmes, MJ, Marshall, LJ. (2017). Effect of thermal treatment and storage on bioactive compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of baobab fruit (Adansonia digitata) pulp from Malawi. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 58: 40-51.

Tsetegho Sokeng, A, Sobolev, A, Di Lorenzo, A, Xiao, J, Mannina, L, Capitani, D, Daglia, M. (2019). Metabolite characterization of powdered fruits and leaves from Adansonia digitata L. (baobab): A multi-methodological approach. Food Chemistry, 272: 93-108.

van der Merwe, R, Kruger, J, Ferruzzi, M, Duodu, K, Taylor, J. (2019). Improving iron and zinc bioaccessibility through food-to-food fortification of pearl millet with tropical plant foodstuffs (moringa leaf powder, roselle calyces and baobab fruit pulp). Journal of Food Science and Technology, 56: 2244-2256.

Vassiliou, A. (2008). COMMISSION DECICION of 27 June 2008 authorising the placing on the market of Baobab dried fruit pulp as a novel food ingredient under Regulation (EC) N° 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council. In Official Journal of the European Union (pp. 1-2).




How to Cite

GBAGUIDI, A. M., CHADARE, F. J., MADODE, Y. E. ., AKOGOU, F. U. G., ASSOGBADJO, A. E. ., & AKISSOE, N. H. (2022). Characteristics of baobab pulp-based foods from urban areas of Benin. Sciences and Technologies for Substainable Agriculture, 2(1), 36-45. Retrieved from



Manuscript submission process